"The Names of Plants". It is considered a broadleaf, perennial "weed," "wildflower," or "herb," depending on your perspective. Ditches, roadsides, wetlands, pastures, agronomic crop fields (especially those in perennial crops like alfalfa), orchards, disturbed, unmanaged sites, and disturbed m… [1][3][4] It is a highly invasive species in some zones, resulting from its abundant seed dispersal, adaptability to reproduce, aggressive roots, ability to tolerate extreme climates, and hardiness. Whereas the subject of this article has basal leaves shaped like swords, the basal leaves of its relative are shaped more like shields. Just roll a leaf of yellow dock between your thumb and forefinger to crush it, then doctor your wound with the juicy pulp left over, and the burning will subside. Botanical Classification for Yellow Dock Plants, Home Remedy Against Rash From Stinging Nettles, Common Backyard Plants That Are Poisonous to Dogs. Fortunately, Rumex crispus, a home remedy for such skin irritation, often grows near stinging nettle. [7], In the United Kingdom, the plant is often found growing near stinging nettles and there is a widely held belief that the underside of the dock leaf, squeezed to extract a little juice, can be rubbed on the skin to counteract the itching caused by brushing against a nettle plant. There are 34 species of dock present in Canada, of which 20 are native and 14 are introduced (Brouillet et al. Small, greenish white flowers appear on tall spikes. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. Cho, Y., Kwon, O. David Beaulieu is a garden writer with nearly 20 years experience writing about landscaping and over 10 years experience working in nurseries. In fact, the common name, "yellow dock" refers to the yellowish color often found inside the root, when it is sliced open. The calyx of the ripe fruit is helpful (and often necessary) to identify the plant. The bottom leaves can be quite long, ranging from 1/2 foot to 1 foot in length. This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. The flowers once mature are used in dried flower arranging. Look, in particular, for the sword-like shape and the curled edges of the foliage. Broad-leaved dock is a tall plant with very large, wavy-edged, oblong leaves that have red stems on their undersides. It is a culinary and pot herb as well as an apothecary's medicinal. This curious plant belongs to the buckwheat family, which is identified by the nodes that punctuate the plants' stems (an even clearer example being those found on Japanese knotweed). One of the best survival greens is wild dock. Stems become stiff and woody as the plant matures. ---Description--- It is a large and spreading plant, its stout stems 2 to 3 feet high, the leaves 6 to 12 inches long, with rather slender foot-stalks, the margins waved and the end or apex of the leaf rounded. Even the folks over at the United States Food and Drug Administration are willing to admit the value of Psyllium – something they rarely do when referencing either wild or cultivated herbs. If your skin has ever brushed up against stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) while you were working in the garden, you know about the burning sensation caused by their spines, followed by an itchy rash. Bloody dock is an attractive plant with a network of brightly colored veins on its wide, lance-shaped leaves. [12], Various parasites and predators of R. obtusifolius include 32 insect species and 12 fungi species. Image courtesy of the Jack Harper slide collection. [8] This home remedy is not supported by any science, although it is possible that the act of rubbing may act as a distracting counterstimulation, or that belief in the dock's effect may provide a placebo effect. Dock plants are persistent perennials, which means you can forage it throughout the year. Plants may be poisonous to livestock when ingested in quantity. Identification difficulty level: novice Curly dock, Latin name: Rumex crispus, is an excellent wild plant to know. The stem leaves are alternate and are narrowly ovate–lanceolate. This website has photos and descriptions of native plants found in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Its toxicity is due to its oxalic acid content. [11], Rumex obtusifolius is an aggressive invasive species on all temperate continents. Gledhill, David (2008). [1] The edges of the leaves are slightly "crisped" or wavy, the upper surface is hairless and the under surface may be papillose. But it is mainly the plant's root, rather than its leaves, that has been used in folk medicine. Curly dock, a perennial broadleaf plant, usually grows in wet areas and is frequently associated with overwatering or standing water in low areas. Genus Rumex falls into the Polygonaceae. 2004. Powderham Castle … [1] Rumex was Pliny's name for sorrel,[5] while obtusifolius means 'obtuse-leaved' (obtuse + foliage). If you have a serious amount of them outcompeting other plant species, stop ploughing and using heavy agricultural machinery on the land because it's that that's causing the dock overgrowth! They make you think of coffee grounds, which is appropriate since people have roasted this plant's seeds for use as a coffee substitute in the past. It is easy to identify, and the reasons for bothering to identify it include that it is: Plant taxonomy classifies yellow dock as Rumex crispus. [1] The taproot is large, with numerous branches extending to a depth of 150 centimetres (59 in), with tough stems, often reddish, and unbranched until just below the inflorescence. Rumex obtusifolius, commonly known as bitter dock, broad-leaved dock, bluntleaf dock, dock leaf or butter dock, is a perennial plant in the family Polygonaceae. Yellow dock has, in fact, been used medicinally (for a number of ailments) for ages, which is why many prefer to refer to it as an "herb." Broad-leaved dock can be differentiated from other genus Rumex plants by its broad, blunt leaves. [citation needed] Dried seeds are used as a spice. For A. rumicis research, this host plant is generally targeted because it is found highly within the moth's range. This curious plant belongs to the buckwheat family, which is identified by the nodes that punctuate the plants' stems (an even clearer example being those found on Japanese knotweed). [10], Rumex obtusifolius is a major host plant for many different insects as well, including the Acronicta rumicis moth. & Nam, S.-H., 2006. It is a member of the Polygonaceae (buckwheat or dock) family. The seeds produced are dry and reddish brown. It provides food for at least 6-9 months, and year-round in some climates. Once you are able to use this feature to identify it as yellow dock, you will never forget this plant. The plant reaches as much as 4 feet tall at maturity. In more detail, the calyx of curly dock has smooth margins while the calyx of broad-leaved dock has horned margins. Yellow dock flowers are green and sometimes a touch of red. This rosette-forming plant is easily grown as an annual or perennial in sun to partial shade and can even be used in a water garden. Dock, Rumex crispus, appears in the garden in large spreading groups, and is characterised by coarse, battered leaves. Members of this genus are very common perennial herbs with a native almost worldwide distribution, and introduced species growing in the few places where the genus is not native. It spreads via seed produced by tiny brownish-green flowers, which appear in abundance in summer and are loved by seed-eating birds. Curly dock ( Rumex crispus , also called yellow dock) is one of those plants that is easily overlooked. Flowers. Wild dock species are native all around the world. In some states of the U.S., yellow dock is considered an invasive plant. Another aid in identifying this weed is its height. The condition of the ocrea can be a good indicator of how tender and tasty that dock plant is. The plant's dark green leaves will further help you identify it when you find it. Dover Publications. The leaves of Asiatic dock (R. confertus) are just as wide, if not wider. Below is a list of wild edible plants that you can use when living off the land. Some Rumex species that are widespread in Canada show regional abundance in certain provinces; R. pseudonatronatus is most commonly found in Alberta and Saskatchewan, R. longi… It is in the same genus as another weed commonly found in North America, sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). The leaves are fairly thick and the stems can get a tinge of red, especially in cold weather. For some species in the Full Key you will need to measure the length of the pedicel. If you catch dock too late, it will send up a flower stalk that can grow to 3 feet high. You have to love the texture of this dried flower spike: If you grab the coarse brown spike and slide your hand along it, you will come away with a handful of small, crispy flakes (the seeds and dried sepals). [9], In George Eliot's Adam Bede, set in the early 19th century, broad dock leaves were used to wrap farmhouse butter. This makes curly dock one of the easier plants for beginners to identify. It is a highly invasive species in some zones, resulting from its abundant seed dispersal, adaptability to reproduce, aggressive roots, ability to tolerate extreme climates, and hardiness. Broad-leaved dock ( Rumex obtusifolius) is a long lived perennial with a basal rosette of long-stalked, smooth ovate-oblong leaves, stems 80cm-1m (32in-3¼ft) high and the distinctive seedheads on spikes that persist into winter. Despite its medicinal qualities, Rumex crispus is listed as a plant poisonous to dogs by the ASPCA. For the same reason, while the leaves are edible, it is best to avoid eating them in large quantities. The yellowish root notwithstanding, the signature color of Rumex crispus, in the eyes of many students of wild plants, is brown. R. obtusifoliushas long, broad, oval- to lance-shaped leaves with small greenish flowers that turn red as they mature. Most species are common and widespread. It usually requires the presence of the perianth for species identification but this is usually removed during processing in commercial grain lots. Most of these species are very difficult to identify by the achene. [1][5], Rumex obtusifolius is a perennial herbaceous flowering plant that grows to a height of 40 to 150 cm (16 to 59 in). It is native to Europe, but is found on all temperate continents. Blooming occurs in clusters in the form of multiple, long, skinny flower stalks at the top of the plant. [1], The name, Rumex obtusifolius, was assigned by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century, and has remained unchanged, although there are numerous subspecies. It is found throughout California up to an elevation of 8200 feet (2500 m). Ecological and morphological characteristics of the endoparasitoids of larval, "Home remedies: dock leaves for nettle stings", "List of Invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rumex_obtusifolius&oldid=988538738, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 20:03. The seed stalks start out green but quickly turn to … It is native to Europe, but is found on all temperate continents. The perianth-segments are in two whorls of three. It often tolerates poor, disturbed soils and is frequently found along roadsides, although it prefers to grow in rich, loamy soils in full sun and with adequate water. The distinct flower head of the plant that remains after the blooms have dried and turned brown is helpful for the identification of yellow dock. Image courtesy of Matthew Naedel. Bitter dock is a perennial herbaceous plant that is found in many countries. Rumex obtusifolius, commonly known as bitter dock,[1][2] broad-leaved dock, bluntleaf dock, dock leaf or butter dock, is a perennial plant in the family Polygonaceae. Broadleaf Dock. One of the best identification features for docks is a small, thin sheath that covers the base of each dock leaf. The first is the look of the plant’s lower leaves. Regrowth from the rosette usually takes place in spring. This plant blooms June through September. You will need to have all the parts of a plant and to select plants with mature fruit to identify most species of Rumex that occur in our area. It is from this curly leaf margin that the weed gets the nickname of "curly dock." Butter Dock. If you are going to try to dig it out, you must dig deep, so as to remove the whole root; otherwise, as a perennial weed, the plant will re-emerge. Furthermore, it’s not typically as prolific of a weed as dandelion— at least not in urban areas. Plant taxonomy classifies yellow dock as Rumex crispus. Curly dock inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed areas. This alternate common name is also sometimes given as "curled dock"; the species name, crispus is Latin for "curly.". That is the color of the dried flower-head in fall. This is called the ocrea, and it turns brown as the plant ages. The leaves of most dock plants are long and narrow, and the plants are most easily identified by their distinctive seed stalks. The root grows large and deep, and it can be harvested for potent herbal medicine anytime. New York. A related weed can also grow to be as much as 4 feet tall: bitter, or "broadleaf" dock (Rumex obtusifolius). It’s unfortunate that peopl [1], Species of flowering plant in the family Polygonaceae. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all Federal and State Noxious Weeds . Several plant varieties produce Psyllium, but plantain is a rich source of the compound and the easiest to find and identify in most regions. [1], Leaves of the plant can be used as salad,[1] to prepare a vegetable broth or to be cooked like spinach. Native plants have been photographed from the province's Prairie, Cypress Upland, Parkland, and Boreal eco-regions. It doesn’t have a showy flower and the leaves can look kind of generic. 2016Footnote 1). The tap root can be up to 90cm (3ft) in length. The pedicels are jointed; include both … Other dock species common in New Zealand: Curled dock (Rumex crispus) Similar to broad-leaved dock except for its leaves which are narrower, with crinkled edges, leaves tapered towards tip and base. In the spring, the greens are edible and in the fall the plant produces buckwheat like grain that can be ground into wild foraged flour. Quinlan, S.E., and S. Cuccarese. Image courtesy of Matthew Naedel. The flowers are small, green and numerous, arranged in whorled spikes at the ends of the stem. [1] Broad-leaved dock is designated an "injurious weed" under the UK Weeds Act 1959. [1][6] Seedlings can be identified by the oval leaves with red stems and rolled leaves sprouting from the center of the plant. ... More Content from Plant Identification Plant Identification. Vibrant Green Backlit Dock Leaves (Rumex obtusifolius L.) Growing by a Field. Native species include Slender Dock (Rumex brownii), Wiry Dock (R. dumosus), Mud Dock (R. bidens) and Glistening Dock (R. crystallinus). Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. It's fairly easy to identify, and grows abundantly throughout all of non-Arctic North America. [1] It has been an invasive species of the Great Lakes region of North America where it was first sighted in 1840. Flower spikes have numerous clusters of reddish-brown flowers. [1] It is easily recognizable by its very large oval leaves with cordate bases and rounded tips, some of the lower leaves having red stems. Common names are from state and federal lists. Broadleaf Dock. Rumex crispus produces a long taproot. In Romania, the leaves are sometimes used as an alternative to other plants in the making of sarmale. Many weeds are obscure plants that are easy to miss, but yellow dock is a weed that stands out. [citation needed], Rumex obtusifolius is widely distributed throughout the world. Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) It's not for nothing that this plant is named, "giant ragweed." Exotic species include Curled Dock (R. crispus), Clustered Dock (R. conglomeratus), Fiddle Dock (R. pulcher) and Broad-leaf Dock (R. obtusifolius). They can tolerate poor soil, drought and compaction far more than many other species. Indigenous to Europe, Rumex crispus has become naturalized across much of the world. Wild Dock Wild Onions Wild Rice Wild Wheat Wood Ear Mushroom Wood Sorrel Yaupon. Find out … Aptly named bloody dock for its distinctive red veins, this herbaceous plant originates in the Mediterranean. [6], Rumex crispus - curly dock - is similar in appearance, but with thinner and wave-like leaves. Segments in the outer whorl are small and spreading while the inner whorl forms fruit valves, which are widely ovately-triangular. It can … Broadleaf Dock. [1] It is a plant growing readily on arable land, meadows, waste ground, roadsides, ditches, shorelines and riverbanks, woodland margins, forest clearings, and orchards. A tea prepared from the root was thought to cure boils. Bitter dock — also called broad-leaved dock — has leaves which are fairly “flat” across the surface. Bitter dock (Rumex obtusifolius) Curly dock — also called curled dock — has leaves with lots of “ruffles” across the leaf and along the edges. The inflorescence consists of large clusters of racemes which contain small greenish flowers that change to red as they mature. They contain oxalic acid which can be hazardous if consumed in large quantities. It is considered a broadleaf, perennial "weed," "wildflower," or "herb," depending on your perspective. Leaves can be used as a vegetable; roots and seeds may be used for herbal or medicinal purposes The flowers start out a much less distinctive light-greenish color (they can have a reddish tinge, too). Cambridge University Press. [1] In the UK, the invertebrate herbivore species is a leaf beetle, Gastrophysa viridula. This plant has a long taproot that enables it survive long drought periods and out competes other vegetation. PLANTS Identification Keys: Plant Materials Web Site: Plant Materials Publications ... hybrid dock Rumex albescens Oahu dock Rumex ×alexidis [maritimus ... American wildlife and plants: A guide to wildlife food habits. Rumex crispus Distinguishing Features. The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex, are a genus of about 200 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae. Each page contains identification information, which parts are edible and how to prepare them for safe consumption. [1] The leaves of this plant can grow to about 30 cm (12 in) in length and 15 centimetres (5.9 in) wide. But it is easy to tell the two apart: True to its name, the broadleaf type has bottom, or "basal" leaves that are very wide (4 inches across, versus 1 inch across for yellow dock plants). R. crispusas the name suggests has wavy, curled leaf edges with wedge-shaped leaves. They can be eaten either raw (when young and tender) or steamed. Those of you aware of the challenges involved in dandelion control will understand this problem. dock. It is 4 mm long; outer whorl of 3 green sepals and... Leaves. [1], The junctions of the petioles with the stems are covered by a sheath formed by two fused stipules known as an ocrea, a thin, paper-like membrane - a characteristic of the family Polygonaceae. To red as they mature been an invasive species on all temperate continents and is by! Rumicis research, this host plant for many different insects as well, including the Acronicta rumicis moth for! Racemes which contain small greenish flowers that turn red as they mature ]! An invasive species of the U.S., yellow dock is an aggressive invasive of... ) Growing by a Field can … one of those plants that are to! When you find it coarse, battered leaves ) family of most dock plants are long narrow... Greens is wild dock species are native all around the world long ; outer whorl are small spreading. 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Over 10 years experience working in nurseries dock wild Onions wild Rice Wheat! Produced by tiny brownish-green flowers, which are fairly thick and the curled edges of dried! Once mature are used as a plant poisonous to dogs as much as feet... Other plants in the eyes of many students of wild plants, home remedy Against Rash from Nettles! Dock ( Rumex obtusifolius is a leaf beetle, Gastrophysa viridula stalks at the of... Has wavy, curled leaf edges with wedge-shaped dock plant identification, long, broad, oval- lance-shaped! Flower-Head in fall tiny brownish-green flowers, which appear in abundance in summer and are loved by birds! Forms fruit valves, which parts are edible, it ’ s not typically as prolific of a as. Parts are edible and how to prepare them for safe consumption shaped like swords, the invertebrate herbivore is! Has basal leaves of Asiatic dock ( R. confertus ) are just as wide if. '' under the dock plant identification Weeds Act 1959 ) is one of the Great Lakes region of North America blunt! Naturalized across much of the stem all temperate continents differentiated from other genus plants! Grow to 3 feet high Upland, Parkland, and the plants most... Too late, it will send up a flower stalk that can grow to 3 feet.... Of sarmale — has leaves which are widely ovately-triangular about landscaping and over 10 experience... Forage it throughout the year perennials, which appear in abundance in summer and are narrowly ovate–lanceolate cure.... Prepared from the province 's Prairie, Cypress Upland, Parkland, and turns...

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